He was born in India, which inspired much of his work. He is seen as an innovator in the art of the short story. Kipling in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was among the United Kingdom's most popular writers. Kipling's subsequent reputation has changed with the political and social climate of the age. But as the age of the European empires recedes, he is recognised as an incomparable, if controversial, interpreter of how empire was experienced. That, and an increasing recognition of his extraordinary narrative gifts, make him a force to be reckoned with.
The Nobel Prize
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A short story is a piece of prose fiction that typically can be read in one sitting and focuses on a self-contained incident or series of linked incidents, with the intent of evoking a single effect or mood. The short story is one of the oldest types of literature and has existed in the form of legends , mythic tales , folk tales , fairy tales , fables and anecdotes in various ancient communities across the world. The modern short story developed in the early 19th century. The short story is a crafted form in its own right. Short stories make use of plot, resonance, and other dynamic components as in a novel , but typically to a lesser degree. Determining what exactly separates a short story from longer fictional formats is problematic. A classic definition of a short story is that one should be able to read it in one sitting, a point most notably made in Edgar Allan Poe 's essay " The Philosophy of Composition "
Conrad is considered an early modernist , [note 4] though his works contain elements of 19th-century realism. Many dramatic films have been adapted from, or inspired by, his works. Numerous writers and critics have commented that Conrad's fictional works, written largely in the first two decades of the 20th century, seem to have anticipated later world events. Writing near the peak of the British Empire , Conrad drew on the national experiences of his native Poland — during nearly all his life, parceled out among three occupying empires  [note 6] — and on his own experiences in the French and British merchant navies , to create short stories and novels that reflect aspects of a European-dominated world — including imperialism and colonialism — and that profoundly explore the human psyche.
Munro's work has been described as revolutionizing the architecture of short stories, especially in its tendency to move forward and backward in time. Munro's fiction is most often set in her native Huron County in southwestern Ontario. Her father, Robert Eric Laidlaw, was a fox and mink farmer,  and later turned to turkey farming. Munro began writing as a teenager, publishing her first story, "The Dimensions of a Shadow", in while studying English and journalism at the University of Western Ontario on a two-year scholarship.