We know that for a given discharge per unit width of a channel, for a given value of the specific energy head E there can be two possible depths of flow d 1 and d 2. The depth d 1 is less than the critical depth and the depth d 2 is greater than the critical depth. When the depth of flow is d 1 less than critical depth the flow is a shooting flow. When the depth of flow is d 2 greater than critical depth the flow is a streaming flow. Shooting flow is an unstable type of flow. If due to certain forced situation, a shooting flow exists in a certain region, it will ultimately convert itself into the stable streaming flow on the downstream side.
An Experimental Study of Flow Characteristics of Undular Hydraulic Jumps over Rough Channel Beds
Hydraulic Jump: Formula, Rectangular, Triangular Channel and Table| Fluid Mechanics
A hydraulic jump is a phenomenon in the science of hydraulics which is frequently observed in open channel flow such as rivers and spillways. When liquid at high velocity discharges into a zone of lower velocity, a rather abrupt rise occurs in the liquid surface. The rapidly flowing liquid is abruptly slowed and increases in height, converting some of the flow's initial kinetic energy into an increase in potential energy, with some energy irreversibly lost through turbulence to heat. In an open channel flow, this manifests as the fast flow rapidly slowing and piling up on top of itself similar to how a shockwave forms. It was first observed and documented by Leonardo da Vinci in the s.
Hydraulic jumps in rectangular channels
Masters thesis, Concordia University. Hydraulic jump is a rapidly varied flow phenomenon that the flow changes suddenly from supercritical to subcritical. Hydraulic jumps are frequently observed to exist in natural river channels, streams, coastal water, and man-made water conveyance systems. Because of a sudden transition of flow regime, hydraulic jumps result in complex flow structures, strong turbulence, and air entrainment.
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