Abnormally invasive placenta AIP is often associated with high maternal morbidity. In surgical treatment, caesarean hysterectomy or partial uterine resection may lead to high perioperative maternal blood loss. A conservative treatment by leaving the placenta in utero after caesarean delivery of the baby is an option to preserve fertility and to reduce peripartum hysterectomy-related morbidity. Nevertheless, due to increased placental coagulation activity as well as consumption of clotting factors, a disseminated intravascular coagulation DIC -like state with secondary late postpartum bleeding can occur.
Development of the Placenta: Main Structures and Functions
Tracking placental development in health and disease | Nature Reviews Endocrinology
Abnormal placentation is considered as an underlying cause of various pregnancy complications such as miscarriage, preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction, the latter increasing the risk for the development of severe disorders in later life such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Despite their importance, the molecular mechanisms governing human placental formation and trophoblast cell lineage specification and differentiation have been poorly unravelled, mostly due to the lack of appropriate cellular model systems. However, over the past few years major progress has been made by establishing self-renewing human trophoblast stem cells and 3-dimensional organoids from human blastocysts and early placental tissues opening the path for detailed molecular investigations. Herein, we summarize the present knowledge about human placental development, its stem cells, progenitors and differentiated cell types in the trophoblast epithelium and the villous core. Anatomy of the early placenta, current model systems, and critical key regulatory factors and signalling cascades governing placentation will be elucidated. Formation of the placenta, the unique exchange organ between mother and fetus, is essential for successful human pregnancy and fetal health. Derived from extraembryonic tissues, the placenta rapidly develops during the first weeks of gestation dynamically changing its structure and function [ 1 , 2 ].
The Possible Role of Placental Morphometry in the Detection of Fetal Growth Restriction
The placenta is a vital connecting organ between the maternal uterus and the foetus. It supports the developing foetus, in utero, by supplying nutrients, eliminating waste products of the foetus and enabling gas exchange via the maternal blood supply. The cell blastocyst contains two distinct differentiated embryonic cell types: the outer trophoblast cells and the inner cell mass. The trophoblast cells form the placenta. The inner cell mass forms the foetus and foetal membranes.