T ake a look at this box of butterflies. How many species do you see? Or you might lean toward grouping them by color, parsing out the yellow from the blue or orange. But all of these butterflies belong to the same species: Papilio dardanus , or the African swallowtail. The diversity of hues and shapes illustrates why classifying organisms based on external appearance alone can be problematic, particularly with butterflies.
DNA barcodes help solve butterfly classification conundrums
DNA barcoding - Wikipedia
Frontiers in Zoology volume 4 , Article number: 8 Cite this article. Metrics details. DNA barcoding, i. Its success is dependent either on the strength of the claim that interspecific variation exceeds intraspecific variation by one order of magnitude, thus establishing a "barcoding gap", or on the reciprocal monophyly of species. We present an analysis of intra- and interspecific variation in the butterfly family Lycaenidae which includes a well-sampled clade genus Agrodiaetus with a peculiar characteristic: most of its members are karyologically differentiated from each other which facilitates the recognition of species as reproductively isolated units even in allopatric populations. This is due to paraphyly or polyphyly of conspecific DNA sequences probably caused by incomplete lineage sorting.
DNA barcoding of fish eggs is a relatively new technique that enables more accurate identification of early life stages of ecologically and economically important fish species. Using DNA barcoding of individual planktonic percomorph eggs, this thesis determines putative spawning locations of neritic and oceanic fish species in the Gulf of Mexico GoM. Surveys at 40 stations in the Gulf of Mexico showed a clear delineation of spawning sites, with neritic fish eggs generally found on continental shelves, and oceanic fish eggs found at the surface of deeper waters. However, samples collected between Florida and Cuba revealed exceptions to this trend driven by physical oceanographic processes, with mesoscale eddies transporting eggs of neritic fishes off the Florida continental shelf into the deep Florida Straits.
Animal-based traditional medicine not only plays a significant role in therapeutic practices worldwide but also provides a potential compound library for drug discovery. However, persistent hunting and illegal trade markedly threaten numerous medicinal animal species, and increasing demand further provokes the emergence of various adulterants. As the conventional methods are difficult and time-consuming to detect processed products or identify animal species with similar morphology, developing novel authentication methods for animal-based traditional medicine represents an urgent need. During the last decade, DNA barcoding offers an accurate and efficient strategy that can identify existing species and discover unknown species via analysis of sequence variation in a standardized region of DNA. Recent studies have shown that DNA barcoding as well as minibarcoding and metabarcoding is capable of identifying animal species and discriminating the authentics from the adulterants in various types of traditional medicines, including raw materials, processed products, and complex preparations.